IELTS Grammar: Instead / Instead of / Rather than

How to use instead / instead of / rather than.

When writing essays in IELTS task 2 (it also comes in handy for the speaking test) you will need to use ‘instead’ or ‘rather than’ to show preference, changing trends, opinions or facts. Here are some sentences based on the topic of technology and internet use.


Examples:

  • In recent times, people use smartphones to browse the internet instead of using a laptop or desktop PC.
  • In recent times, people use smartphones rather than a laptop or desktop PC to browse the internet.
  • Instead of using a laptop or desktop PC, most people use smartphones to browse the internet In recent times.
  • It used to be very common to use a Laptop or desktop PC to browse the internet, In recent times, most people use a smartphone instead.

The above sentences all mean the ssame, I have just played around with the structure of the sentences to show how the words instead, rather than or instead of can be used.


Grammar rules:

  • Instead of + gerund (-ing) ..noun is also possible

    Rather than + noun or gerund

‘Instead of can be at the start of the sentence as in sentence number 3 or just instead’ at the end in sentence number 4. This can also be used to express a changing trend or an opinion, see examples below. (I can also use ‘rather than’)

Changing Trends:

  • All around the world, there is a growing trend of people using smartphones to browse the internet instead of using desktop PCs.
  • In recent times, instead of browsing the internet with a desktop PC, most people are using smartphones.

Opinions:

  • Instead of using books to study, I think children should use iPads to help them learn in school.
  • I believe it would be better if schools used iPads to teach children, instead of using textbooks.
  • I think it would be better if schools used iPads, rather than using textbooks to teach kids.

Exercise

This is on the topic of Technology and the Internet.

Complete these sentences with your own ideas. remember to use -ing or gerunds

1. Nowadays, people prefer to use apps to study English  _____  ____  _____ web pages.
2. _______  ____ _______ in an office, many employees are working at home now because of advances in telecommuting.
3. Other forms of social networking are becoming very popular_______  ____ Facebook.
4. In my opinion , it would be much more effective for teachers to use powerpoint presentations in the classroom _______ _______  _______  with the same old textbooks.
5. Facebook used to be a popular way to keep in touch, however, nowadays most people communicate via WhatsApp ______


Can you write full sentences using these ideas?

Try to use “instead of”  “rather than”  “instead’  you can change the sentence to give your opinion.

1. Kids playing computer games / should be playing outside.
2. Spending all the time on smartphones / people need to have face to face communication.
3. Nowadays facebook is not as popular / messaging apps more popular.
4. Smartphones are used more for internet browsing / desktop PCs.

1. Nowadays, people prefer to use apps to study English instead of using web pages.
2. Instead of working in an office, many employees are working at home now because of advances in telecommuting.
3. Other forms of social networking are becoming very popular rather than Facebook.
4. In my opinion , it would be much more effective for teachers to use powerpoint presentations in the classroom instead of teaching with the same old textbooks.
5. Facebook used to be a popular way to keep in touch, however, nowadays most people communicate via WhatsApp instead.

1. These days kids love playing computer games, I think they should be playing outside instead.
2. Instead of spending all their time on smartphones, It would be a good idea if people had more face to face communication.
3. Nowadays facebook is not as popular, messaging apps are more popular instead.
4. Over the past 2 years, smartphones are used more for internet browsing rather than desktop PCs.

 

Don`t copy text!