Writing about graphs with future trends.
Something that occasionally comes up in IELTS academic Writing task 1 are graphs with predictions and future trends. In this case you need to use the future tense with some specific academic phrases for graphs with a future trend. Lets have a look at the grammar needed for this kind of graph here. Note that the data in this task is dynamic, that means it changes over time.
Static and Dynamic graphs
Static data means that the chart or graph displays one period of time. Dynamic data shows two or more periods of time. It also shows how trends change over a period of time.
Different language will be used for static charts and dynamic charts. So for example, you cant use the language of trends for a static chart because the data doesn’t change over time. Always make sure that you first analyse the chart or graph to see if it is one time period, or the data is changing over time. If you use trend language for a static chart you will lose marks for grammar.
In this lesson we will learn:
1. Grammar and vocabulary for IELTS graphs with a future trend.
2. Example sentences based on a graph.
3. Exercise (gap fill)
Grammar for future trends:
Here I will need to use the future tense, passive, language of trends and comparisons.
Future simple (Will + base verb)
- will rise, will decline, will remain the same.. etc…
Future perfect (Will + have + past participle)
- will have risen, will have dropped, will have fallen by 20%…
- is /are expected to
- is/are set to
- is / are predicted that /to
- is / are anticipated that /to
- is/are likely to
With future trends you need to use phrases such as:
- …is / are predicted to
- …is/are estimated that
- … is /are set to
- ….is / are anticipated that
- ….is / are projected to
“student numbers are expected to decline”
“It is estimated that the number of skilled workers will rise”
“Manufacturing is set to rise”
“Visitor numbers will likely increase”
“By 2030 luxury car sales will most likely decline”
“It is predicted that visitor numbers will drop in the next 5 years”
“It is anticipated that visitor numbers will show a marked drop”
“On the other hand, sales in the UK will show a significant increase compared to the USA”
“According to the data, sales are likely to show a significant increase in comparison with the USA”
“Oil and coal consumption is projected to increase over the next decade”
Verb +Adverb collocation to show emphasis:
“Student numbers will have risen sharply”
“Sales of desktop PCs are predicted to drop considerably over the whole period”
“Visitor numbers are likely to fall significantly according to the data”
“By 2030, car sales will likely decline drastically”
“Production of new iPhone’s are anticipated to increase gradually by the end of the period”
“The elderly population in Italy is predicted to rise considerably by 2050″
“Nuclear power as a source of energy is expected to dip slightly before leveling off”
Example graph with a future trend
Note: This task is not an official Cambridge task, I have simplified it for practice purposes only.
Example sentences based on this chart.
1. In Japan, from 2025 to 2035, the production of cars is set to decline sharply.
2. It is predicted that by 2030 in China, car production will have increased.
3. From 2025 onwards, the number of cars made in Japan is expected to show a similar trend to that of the USA.
4. The number of cars that will be manufactured is likely to drop drastically in the USA by 2035.
5. There is expected to be a gradual increase in car production in China after 2020.
6. Car production in the UK is anticipated to see a sharp decline in the years from 2025 to 2035.
Here is the graph again. Fill in the Gaps using the words below.
predictions / sharply / on the other hand
will be a gradual increase / set to / will be / estimated number of
The graph shows the ________ _______ ___ cars that _____ ____ manufactured from 2020 to 2035 in hundreds of thousands in Japan, the UK, the USA and China.
Overall, Japan, the UK and the USA show _______ that the number of cars manufactured is ___ ___ decline _____ by the end of the period. China ____ _____ _____ ____, indicates that there _____ ____ __ _____ ____ in car production over the whole period.
just over / slight increase / considerable decline / anticipated to follow this trend
predicted / marked drop / is expected to / set to / will be / dramatically
By 2035, car manufacturing in the USA __ _______ ___ drop __________ from 300,000 to ____ ____ a few thousand cars manufactured. The UK is also ______ ____ ______ ____ ____ and shows a _______ _______ in the number of cars that ____ ____ produced. Japan, which indicates it ____ ___ the leading car maker in 2020 at 350,000 cars, is ___ ____ show a ______ ______ in production by 2025, but then a ______ _______ where production is _______ to fall to around 100,000 .
ending at / will have / it is estimated that / will be at / predicted to show
On the other hand, China is ______ __ ______ a gradual increase in car production over the whole period. __ __ _______ ____ production ___ ___ __ 100,000 in 2020 and by 2030 it _____ _____ surpassed the other three countries, _____ ___ around 150,000 vehicles by 2035.
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